Low-cost solar energy conduction. A transparent layer of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is used to conduct energy in conventional photovoltaics. ITO film is expensive due to the high cost of the current ITO vacuum fabrication method and the high cost of Indium materials. This project seeks to replace the ITO in solar cells with a lower-cost layer of graphene, a sort of “atomic chicken wire” crafted from bonded carbon atoms, applied to the photovoltaic via a spin-on process from solution. Project members are currently engaged in optimizing preliminary methods of fabricating graphene.